by Michelle D Smith1, Anne Russell2 and Paul W Hodges

Division of Physiotherapy, The University of Queensland 2School of Population Health, The University of Queensland

“Although obesity and physical activity have been argued to predict back pain, these factors are also related to incontinence and
breathing difficulties. Breathing and continence mechanisms may interfere with the physiology of spinal control, and may provide
a link to back pain. The aim of this study was to establish the association between back pain and disorders of continence and
respiration in women.”

For the full article researching the link between breathing & continence, and back pain, please see the following PDF:

Smith and Hodges 2006 article